Sat. Jul 20th, 2019

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Ese koko Abanyamurenge baba ari Abatutsi?

AMAHUGURWA...

Hashize imyaka itari myinshi izina Umunyamurenge rihawe ubusonanuro nk’izina ry’ubgoko, bumwe mu moko y’Abanyecongo abarizwa mu ntara ya Kivu y’Amaj’epfo mu karere k’imisozi miremire, akaba ari ubgoko buzwiho ubgorozi bg’amatungo cane cane maremare (Inka).

Nubgo izina ry’Abanyamurenge ridafite amateka maremare cane nk’Izina ry’ubgoko ariko ub’ubgoko bgagiye buhura n’ibizazane byo kwitwa andi mazina atandukanye mu buryo butaziguye bityo bigahungabanya umwimerere w’amateka n’umutekano wabo.

Kukibazo c’amazina nka: Les Rwandais, Tutsi d’Itombwe, Tutsi congolais, nandi menshi yagiye akoreshwa mu gutanga ubusobanura (Identifying) kur’ubu bgoko. Muby’ukuri nubgo ari byiza kuvuga amateka uko ari, gusa ntibyakabaye ikibazo kinini guhabgwa agatazirano utagamije guharabika cangwa kugoreka amateka gusa biteza ikibazo gikomeye iyo ako gatazirano gakoreshejwe nk’igikoresho ca polkitiki.

Mur’iyi nyandiko turibanda cane ku mazina, Tutsi (Congolais cg d’itombwe) ndetse na Ruandais (Rwandais), amazina Bakunze kwita Abanyamurenge

Ese byaba bifite ishingiro guhuza izina ry’Abanyamulenge nandi mazina nk’Abatutsi cangwa Ruandais?

Bidasubirwaho izina Tutsi ryatangiye gukoreshwa bgambere n’abanditsi (Academics), mu mateka y’Abanyamurenge, hagati y’umuzo w’abakoloni ndetse n’igihe c’ubgigenge bg’ibihugu bibarizwa muri C.E.P.G.L (Communauté Économique des Pays des Grand Lacs).

Ayo mazina, yakunze kugarukwaho cane cane n’abanditsi b’Abanyaburayi m’ubushakashatsi bgabo. Aha twavuga nka Jacques Jerome Maquet na bagenzi be mu 1957 ndetse na Jean Hiernaux mu 1965. Hieranux, nubgo yasohoraga igitabo yise “Bulletins et Mémoires de la société d’ anthropologie de paris”, guhera kuri paje ya 361 kugeza kuri page ya 379, akagaragaza ubushakashatsi yakoreye imurenge bukubiye muco yahaye umutwe uvuga ngo “Note sur le Tutsi de l’itombwe”, ntago ubushakashatsi bge bgari bg’ ibanze ku nkomoko y’ ubu bgoko yise Tutsi d’Itombwe.

Hiernaux, yunga mu rya bagenzi be bamubanjirije bari barangajwe imbere na Maquet, yemeza ko Abanyamurenge ari abatutsi bafite inkomoko m’ uburengerazuba bg’ u Rwanda ahahereye i Cyangugu. Kur’iyi ngingo yemeje, uwavuga ko yaba ifitanye isano rya bugufi n’ impamvu yaba yaramuteye guhuza ubusobanuro (Identification) bgaba borozi b’Itombwe n’umutwe w’iyo nyandiko ye yise “Note sur le Tutsi de l’Itombwe” ntabwo yoba yibeshe. Bibaye bimeze bityo, haba harimo ukwibesha gukomeye kuko hari byinshi byemeza ko Abanyamurenge baba badafitanye isano rya bugufi gusa n’Abatutsi b’ i Rwanda ndetse n’Uburundi.

Hashingiwe k’uburyo basa (Biological Anthropology), abanyamurenge n’abantu basa cane n’abanilotiki bo mu karere k‘ibiyaga bigari. K’urugero, twavuga nk’Abatutsi, Abahima, Nuer, Dinka, Maassai, Kalenjin, n’ abandi.

Hagendewe k’ururimi (Linguistically), ururimi Abanyamurenge bakoresha n’ururimi rwisanga cane hagati y’i Kirundi, I Kinyarwanda ndetse n’izindi ndimi zo muri Congo. Gusa kuba Abanyamurenge bashobora kuvuga ururimi rushatse gusa n’izindi ndimi zikoreshwa mu bihugu bituwe n’Abatutsi ntibyakabye ikibazo bitewe nuko nta rurimi rw’Igitutsi ruzwi rubaho, bisobanuye ko uruja n’uruza rw’abantu (Displacement and Migratory Mouvement) rushobora kuba intandaro yo gutakaza umwimerere w’ururimi.

Ikindi kandi, bitewe nuko abantu batuye mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari bagenda bisanga mu mirara (clans) itandukanye kandi bagenda bisangamo hatitawe kuho baherereye; byaba bigoye kumenya gutandukanya Abatutsi, Abahima, N’abandi ba nilotike babarizwa mu karere.

Kugirango byumvikane neza reka tugende dutanga ingero mur’iyi mirara (Clans) ushobora gusanga mu bihugu bitandukanye by’aka karere k’ibiyaga bigari.

ABAHINDA, ushobora kubasanga muri Congo, u Rwanda, na Uganda. Umwanditsi Rescoe, m’ubushakashatsi yakoze mu mwaka wa 1923, yemeza ko Abahinda ari ubgoko bgavagamo Abami (Abatware) muri Ankole (Uganda) na Karagwe (Tanzania). Yongeraho kandi ko Ruhinda ariwe Abahinda bakomokaho, akaba yarabyawe na Wamala nawe ukomoka mu nzu (Dynasty) y’Abacwezi. kubg’ibyo Rero gufata umuntu w’Umuhinda warangiza ukamwita Umututsi (bishatse kuguga ko amateka ye atangiriye mu Rwanda cg m’Uburundi) kwaba ari ukumupfobereza amateka.

ABAHA, n’umurara ushobora gusanga muri Congo ndetse n’Iburundi. Umwanditsi, Joseph Mutambo, mu gitabo yise “Les Banyamurenge“, avuga ko ubu bgoko bufite inkomoko muri Tanzania. Byaba bigoye gutanga ubusobanuro ku mpamvu yo kuvuga ko ubgoko bg’Abanyamurenge ari Abatutsi mu gihe muri Tanzania nta bgoko (Tribe) bg’Abatutsi buzwi bubayo.

Birashoboka ko igihugu c’urwanda gishobora kuba cari gifite imbago (Boarders) zirenze izo gifite k’urubu nkuko ubushakashatsi butandunye bgagiye bubisobanura, mbese hakaba hari ibice ibihugu bibanyi byabambuye, bikaba byaba ariyo ntandaro y’Abatutsi mu bihugu bitandukanye bigize akarere k’ibiyaga binini. Nabgo byaba bigoye kugirango hagaragazwe uburyo bafitanye isano rya bugufi kuruta abandi banilotike badasangiye ururimi kandi bose gagenda bisanga mu mirara (Clans) ihuye. ku urugero; nko kuvuga ngo utandukanye amasano ari hagati y’ Abasita ba Uganda, bo mu Rwanda, nabo muri Congo.

Ese Kuba Abanyamurenge batazirwa utundi tuzina ntiyaba ari impamvu za politiki?

Ni ibintu byakumvikana cane uvuze ko Abanyamurenge “ ar’Aborozi b’Itombwe” cangwe “ Abanilotike bo muri Congo” gusa impamvu za politike zaranze Afurika muri Rusange ndetse n’ akarere k’Afurika yo hagati by’umwihariko zagiye zitanga umusanzu mu kugoreka amateka yaranze abatuye uyu mugabane.

Abanyamurenge nabo bahuye niri sanganya, mu mwaka wa 1885, ubgo abakoloni bageraga mu gihugu ca DR Congo bazanye impinduka mu miyoborere yari ihari kugirango babashe kuyobora igihugu neza. Abanyamulenge bari bafite ubuyobozi babarizwagamo (Chiefdoms), akaba yari amami mato mato ugereranyije n’abaturanyi babo. Ntibyaje kubahira rero kuberako amami yabo (Chiefdoms) yaje kugenda yomekwa ku mami manini yarahari y’abaturanyi babo.

Izi mpinduka, Abanyamurenge, ntago bazakiriye neza. Bikaba muri bimwe mubyakuruye uruhuri rw’ ibibazo rwabahanganishaga n’andi moko bari baturanye kuva ico gihe. Izo mpinduka (Political-Social) zemezwa n’umushakashatsi, Gasinzira Muzuri, mu gitabo (Memoires) yise “Evolution des Conflits Ethnic dand l’Itombwe” mu mwaka wa 1982.

Nyuma yaho, aba bakoloni baje gutanga indangamuntu (Amabugu) ku banyagihugu bose, nuko bageze ku Banyamurenge Bandika ko ubgoko bgabo ari Abanyarwanda. Ibi byaje gukoreshwa na bamwe mu banyepolitike bakomoka mu moko y’abaturanyi nyuma gato yaho congo iboneye ubgigenge.

Kwitwa amazina atandukanye ariyo “Abatutsi”, “Abanyarwanda” byaje gufata indi intera birenga Iby’abanditsi n’ ibyabakoloni noneho biba igikoresho ca Politiki mu kwirukana ub’ ubgo no kubaheza mu butegetsi bgite bg’igihugu. Ibi nibyo byaje kuba intandaro yo kuvuka kw’ izina Abanyamurenge, Nk’Izina ry’ubgoko mu 1969.

Ibihugu bibanyi bibarizwamo Abatutsi byaje kwisanga mu bushamire bg’amoko maze bigira ingaruka zikomeye kur’ubu bgoko bg’Abanyamurenge.

Ingaruka bahuye nazo harimo kwicwa bazira uko basa, kwirukanwa mu gihugu cabo gakondo bikozwe n’ubutegetsi bgari buhari, guhunga, n’ibindi. izi zabaye ingaruka zihuye cane n’icengezamatwara rishingiye kurayo mazina ubgoko bg’Abanyamurenge bgagiye buhabga.

Kugeza ubu, nta bushakashatsi burazingura amateka ahamye ku nkomoko y’izina Tutsi, gusa benshi bemezako iri zina ryavukiye mu karere kibiyagabigali.

Bishobotseko abatutsi ry’aba ari izina ry’inzu(Dynasty), byaba bigoye kwemezako abanyamulenge bose baba arabatutsi bitewe nuko haribyinshi bahuriyeho n’abandi ba nilotike.

Abatutsi bibaye ari ubusobanuro ku borozi b’Irwanda ndetse n’Iburundi, nta mpamvu yatuma habaho ku bangikanya iryo zina ry’Abanyamulenge hamwe n’ubututsi kuko bafite amateka yabo yihariye.

Abanyamurenge n’izina ryaje ribumbira hamwe aborozi b’Itombwe hatitawe kuho baturutse, bityo ko byaba byiza mugukomeza gusigasira umwimerere waryo nk’abanilotike b’abanyecongo hirindwa izindi

Sangiza Abandi Inkuru

4 thoughts on “Ese koko Abanyamurenge baba ari Abatutsi?

  1. Birababaje kuba tutavuga rumwe kumateka yacu ,ushobora kwibaza kubana bazavuka mukindi kinyejana bazajya bavuga amateka y’abanyamurenge nka myths.kubw’urukundo rw’ubwoko abantu basobanukiwe amateka bakwicara bagakora ubushakashatsi yanyuma bakandika igitabo ku mateka y’abanyamurenge niyo byaba pages ibihumbi ntacyo bitwaye kuko waba ari umutungo w’ubwoko.

  2. Nishimiye iri sesenguzi kandi uyu nyiri kwandika iyi nkuru adufashe kwandika igitabo kuko ubushishozi afite nibwo kandi uku kuri mubyo nanjye narinzi mburimo ariko fact for future generations ni Ibitabo kuko izimbuga zizageraho zibe expired

  3. Ahubwo ndumva ari wowe ugiye kugoreka Amateka
    Uyasubiremo neza
    Nonese Imulenge nk’akarere byahuzwa bite na Clan(Ubwoko)
    Abantu bitwa abatutsi kuberako bakomoka kuri Mututsi!
    Nonese ubwoko bw’abanyamulenge bukomoka kuri nde?
    Subira mu mateka reka kuyagoreka

    1. Amateka ya Mututsi uvuga ntabaho..n abahanga mu mateka ntago basobanura ico izina “Tutsi” rivuga. Umunyamulenge akomoka kuba Cushiste selon Atlas.

      Muri make umunyamurenge n’ umworozi wa Itombwe nkuko Abatutsi ari aborozi b’irwanda, abahima bakaba aborozi bo mubugande.

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